WHY EXACT?

We are always finding ways to simplify complex tasks using technology. Our latest innovation is EXACT - a highly reliable, easy to use and scalable technology platform for smooth transition of businesses to GST.

CONTACT INFO - NAGPUR
  • Address: Plot No. 14 / IV, Third Floor,
    I.T. Park Parsodi,
    South Ambazari Road,
    Nagpur, Maharashtra 440 022 (India).
  • Phone: +91-712- 6699600 / 2229651
  • Email: sales@exactgst.com
CONTACT INFO - PUNE
  • Address: Survey No. 22/4/1,
    Behind IRIS Balewadi,
    Near Cummins Campus,
    Baner Balewadi Road, Balewadi,
    Pune, Maharashtra 411 045 (India).
  • Phone: +91-20-66283600

GST is one indirect tax for the whole nation, which will make India one unified common market.

GST stands for Goods and Services Tax. GST will be a single destination based consumption tax that will replace existing taxes, including CENVAT, Octroi, Sales Tax, and Excise Duty, etc. Unlike the old tax structure, where the state of origin received tax revenue, in the new GST model the state in which goods and services are consumed is the state that will receive the revenue.

The present forms of CENVAT and State VAT have remained incomplete in removing the cascading burden of taxes already paid at earlier stages. Besides, there are several other taxes, which both the Central Government and the State Government levy on production, manufacture and distributive trade, where no set-off is available in the form of input tax credit. These taxes add to the cost of goods and services through “tax on tax” which the final consumer has to bear.

With the introduction of GST, all the cascading effects of CENVAT and service tax would be removed with a continuous chain of set-off from the producer’s point to the retailer’s point, other major Central and State taxes would be subsumed in GST and CST will also be phased out, the final net burden of tax on goods, under GST would, in general, fall. Since there would be a transparent and complete chain of set-offs, this will help widen the coverage of tax base and improve tax compliance. This may lead to higher generation of revenues which may in turn lead to the possibility of lowering of the average tax burden.

For business and industry

  • Easy compliance: A robust and comprehensive IT system would be the foundation of the GST regime in India. Therefore, all tax payer services such as registrations, returns, payments, etc. would be available to the taxpayers online, which would make compliance easy and transparent.
  • Uniformity of tax rates and structures: GST will ensure that indirect tax rates and structures are common across the country, thereby increasing certainty and ease of doing business. In other words, GST would make doing business in the country tax neutral, irrespective of the choice of place of doing business.
  • Removal of cascading: A system of seamless tax-credits throughout the value-chain, and across boundaries of States, would ensure that there is minimal cascading of taxes. This would reduce hidden costs of doing business.
  • Improved competitiveness: Reduction in transaction costs of doing business would eventually lead to an improved competitiveness for the trade and industry.
  • Gain to manufacturers and exporters: The subsuming of major Central and State taxes in GST, complete and comprehensive set-off of input goods and services and phasing out of Central Sales Tax (CST) would reduce the cost of locally manufactured goods and services. This will increase the competitiveness of Indian goods and services in the international market and give boost to Indian exports. The uniformity in tax rates and procedures across the country will also go a long way in reducing the compliance cost.

For Central and State Governments

  • Simple and easy to administer: Multiple indirect taxes at the Central and State levels are being replaced by GST. Backed with a robust end-to-end IT system, GST would be simpler and easier to administer than all other indirect taxes of the Centre and State levied so far.
  • Better controls on leakage: GST will result in better tax compliance due to a robust IT infrastructure. Due to the seamless transfer of input tax credit from one stage to another in the chain of value addition, there is an in-built mechanism in the design of GST that would incentivize tax compliance by traders.
  • Higher revenue efficiency: GST is expected to decrease the cost of collection of tax revenues of the Government, and will therefore, lead to higher revenue efficiency.

For consumer

  • Single and transparent tax proportionate to the value of goods and services: Due to multiple indirect taxes being levied by the Centre and State, with incomplete or no input tax credits available at progressive stages of value addition, the cost of most goods and services in the country today are laden with many hidden taxes. Under GST, there would be only one tax from the manufacturer to the consumer, leading to transparency of taxes paid to the final consumer.
  • Relief in overall tax burden: Because of efficiency gains and prevention of leakages, the overall tax burden on most commodities will come down, which will benefit consumers.

CGST: Central Goods and Services Tax, paid on all transactions, collected by the Center

SGST: State Goods and Services Tax, paid on all transactions within a State, collected by the States

IGST: Integrated Goods and Services Tax, paid on all interstate transactions, or import of goods into India, collected by the Center

India is a federal country where both the Centre and the States have been assigned the powers to levy and collect taxes through appropriate legislation. Both the levels of Government have distinct responsibilities to perform according to the division of powers prescribed in the Constitution for which they need to raise resources. A dual GST will, therefore, be in keeping with the Constitutional requirement of fiscal federalism.

The Central GST and the State GST would be levied simultaneously on every transaction of supply of goods and services except the exempted goods and services, goods which are outside the purview of GST and the transactions which are below the prescribed threshold limits. Further, both would be levied on the same price or value unlike State VAT which is levied on the value of the goods inclusive of CENVAT. While the location of the supplier and the recipient within the country is immaterial for the purpose of CGST, SGST would be chargeable only when the supplier and the recipient are both located within the State.

Illustration I: Suppose hypothetically that the rate of CGST is 10% and that of SGST is 10%. When a wholesale dealer of steel in Uttar Pradesh supplies steel bars and rods to a construction company which is also located within the same State for, say Rs. 100, the dealer would charge CGST of Rs. 10 and SGST of Rs. 10 in addition to the basic price of the goods. He would be required to deposit the CGST component into a Central Government account while the SGST portion into the account of the concerned State Government. Of course, he need not actually pay Rs. 20 (Rs. 10 + Rs. 10) in cash as he would be entitled to set-off this liability against the CGST or SGST paid on his purchases (say, inputs). But for paying CGST he would be allowed to use only the credit of CGST paid on his purchases while for SGST he can utilize the credit of SGST alone. In other words, CGST credit cannot, in general, be used for payment of SGST. Nor can SGST credit be used for payment of CGST.

Illustration II: Suppose, again hypothetically, that the rate of CGST is 10% and that of SGST is 10%. When an advertising company located in Mumbai supplies advertising services to a company manufacturing soap also located within the State of Maharashtra for, let us say Rs. 100, the ad company would charge CGST of Rs. 10 as well as SGST of Rs. 10 to the basic value of the service. He would be required to deposit the CGST component into a Central Government account while the SGST portion into the account of the concerned State Government. Of course, he need not again actually pay Rs. 20 (Rs. 10+Rs. 10) in cash as it would be entitled to set-off this liability against the CGST or SGST paid on his purchase (say, of inputs such as stationery, office equipment, services of an artist etc). But for paying CGST he would be allowed to use only the credit of CGST paid on its purchase while for SGST he can utilise the credit of SGST alone. In other words, CGST credit cannot, in general, be used for payment of SGST. Nor can SGST credit be used for payment of CGST.

The various Central, State and Local levies were examined to identify their possibility of being subsumed under GST. While identifying, the following principles were kept in mind:

  • Taxes or levies to be subsumed should be primarily in the nature of indirect taxes, either on the supply of goods or on the supply of services.
  • Taxes or levies to be subsumed should be part of the transaction chain which commences with import/ manufacture/ production of goods or provision of services at one end and the consumption of goods and services at the other.
  • The subsumption should result in free flow of tax credit in intra and inter-State levels.
  • The taxes, levies and fees that are not specifically related to supply of goods & services should not be subsumed under GST.
  • Revenue fairness for both the Union and the States individually would need to be attempted.

On application of the above principles, the Empowered Committee has recommended that the following Central Taxes should be, to begin with, subsumed under the Goods and Services Tax:

  • Central Excise Duty
  • Additional Excise Duties
  • The Excise Duty levied under the Medicinal and Toiletries Preparation Act
  • Service Tax
  • Additional Customs Duty, commonly known as Countervailing Duty (CVD)
  • Special Additional Duty of Customs - 4% (SAD)
  • Surcharges, and
  • Cesses

The following State taxes and levies would be, to begin with, subsumed under GST:

  • VAT / Sales tax
  • Entertainment tax (unless it is levied by the local bodies).
  • Luxury tax
  • Taxes on lottery, betting and gambling.
  • State Cesses and Surcharges in so far as they relate to supply of goods and services.
  • Entry tax not in lieu of Octroi.

Purchase tax: Some of the States felt that they are getting substantial revenue from Purchase Tax and, therefore, it should not be subsumed under GST while majority of the States were of the view that no such exemptions should be given. The difficulties of the foodgrain producing States was appreciated as substantial revenue is being earned by them from Purchase Tax and it was, therefore, felt that in case Purchase Tax has to be subsumed then adequate and continuing compensation has to be provided to such States. This issue is being discussed in consultation with the Government of India.

Tax on items containing alcohol: Alcoholic beverages would be kept out of the purview of GST. Sales Tax/VAT could be continued to be levied on alcoholic beverages as per the existing practice. In case it has been made Vatable by some States, there is no objection to that. Excise Duty, which is presently levied by the States may not also be affected.

Tax on Tobacco products: Tobacco products would be subjected to GST with ITC. Centre may be allowed to levy excise duty on tobacco products over and above GST with ITC.

Tax on Petroleum products: As far as petroleum products are concerned, it was decided that the basket of petroleum products, i.e. crude, motor spirit (including ATF) and HSD would be kept outside GST as is the prevailing practice in India. Sales Tax could continue to be levied by the States on these products with prevailing floor rate. Similarly, Centre could also continue its levies. A final view whether Natural Gas should be kept outside the GST will be taken after further deliberations.

Taxation of Services: As indicated earlier, both the Centre and the States will have concurrent power to levy tax on goods and services. In the case of States, the principle for taxation of intra-State and inter46 State has already been formulated by the Working Group of Principal Secretaries /Secretaries of Finance / Taxation and Commissioners of Trade Taxes with senior representatives of Department of Revenue, Government of India. For inter-State transactions an innovative model of Integrated GST will be adopted by appropriately aligning and integrating CGST and IGST.

The Empowered Committee has decided to adopt a two-rate structure –a lower rate for necessary items and items of basic importance and a standard rate for goods in general. There will also be a special rate for precious metals and a list of exempted items. For upholding of special needs of each State as well as a balanced approach to federal flexibility, it is being discussed whether the exempted list under VAT regime including Goods of Local Importance may be retained in the exempted list under State GST in the initial years. It is also being discussed whether the Government of India may adopt, to begin with, a similar approach towards exempted list under the CGST.

For CGST relating to goods, the States considered that the Government of India might also have a two-rate structure, with conformity in the levels of rate with the SGST. For taxation of services, there may be a single rate for both CGST and SGST.

The exact value of the SGST and CGST rates, including the rate for services, will be made known duly in course of appropriate legislative actions.

With Constitutional Amendments, both CGST and SGST will be levied on import of goods and services into the country. The incidence of tax will follow the destination principle and the tax revenue in case of SGST will accrue to the State where the imported goods and services are consumed. Full and complete set-off will be available on the GST paid on import on goods and services.

Cross utilization of credit of CGST between goods and services would be allowed. Similarly, the facility of cross utilization of credit will be available in case of SGST. However, the cross utilization of CGST and SGST would generally not be allowed except in the case of inter-State supply of goods and services under the IGST model which is explained in answer to the next question.

Existing dealers: Existing VAT/Central excise/Service Tax payers will not have to apply afresh for registration under GST.

New dealers: Single application to be filed online for registration under GST.

  • The registration number will be PAN based and will serve the purpose for Centre and State.
  • Unified application to both tax authorities.
  • Each dealer to be given unique ID GSTIN.
  • Deemed approval within three days.
  • Post registration verification in risk based cases only.

The major features of the proposed returns filing procedures under GST are as follows:

  • Common return would serve the purpose of both Centre and State Government.
  • There are eight forms provided for in the GST business processes for filing for returns. Most of the average tax payers would be using only four forms for filing their returns. These are return for supplies, return for purchases, monthly returns and annual return.
  • Small taxpayers: Small taxpayers who have opted composition scheme shall have to file return on quarterly basis.
  • Filing of returns shall be completely online. All taxes can also be paid online.

The major features of the proposed payments procedures under GST are as follows:

  • Electronic payment process- no generation of paper at any stage
  • Single point interface for challan generation- GSTN
  • Ease of payment – payment can be made through online banking, Credit Card/Debit Card, NEFT/RTGS and through cheque/cash at the bank
  • Common challan form with auto-population features
  • Use of single challan and single payment instrument
  • Common set of authorized banks
  • Common Accounting Codes